Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Raspberry Pi TOR/VPN Router


Raspberry Pi TOR/VPN Router

Surf the Internet securely with your very own portable WiFi VPN/TOR router. You can configure a Raspberry Pi with Linux and some extra software to connect to a VPN server of your choice.

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Saturday, July 25, 2015

What are the principles of an open organization?

What are the principles of an open organization?


When there is a choice, we choose to share—early and often.


Real people. Real stories. Real solutions. Always.


Openness and transparency are only useful if you make the information available in ways that your audiences can (and will) use it.


Always default to open. Avoid hurdles and hoops.

Thursday, July 23, 2015

Demystifying copyleft

Demystifying copyleft, by Chrissie Himes, Operations Assistant and Donald Robertson, Copyright and Licensing Associate

Copyright is the legal mechanism afforded to the authors of original creative works, such as books, music, and software. Under 17 U.S. Code § 106, the exclusive rights granted to the artists are:
(1) the right to reproduce the copyrighted work;
(2) the right to prepare derivative works based upon the work;
(3) the right to distribute copies of the work to the public;
(4) the right to perform the copyrighted work publicly; and
(5) the right to display the copyrighted work publicly.

Copyleft is a tool that works within copyright law, easing the process of licensing creative works to be used, retooled, and/or shared. For instance, you may have a new piece of software that you would like the general public to be able to build upon and fix bugs within. But under U.S. copyright law you possess the exclusive right to prepare derivative works. If you don't provide your users with a license, they won't be able to do all the things that they should be able to do, like modify and share the work. So while many projects think that simply putting the source code up on a repository is good enough to share their work, unless they choose and apply a license, all their hard work will go to waste. So choosing a good copyleft license that most communicates your intent is of great importance. The GNU General Public License (GPLv3) is a strong copyleft license that ensures not only that users have all the rights they need to share and modify your work, but that every downstream user has those same rights. The GNU Affero General Public License (AGPLv3) is also a strong copyleft license like the GPL, but with an additional provision that ensures that users interacting with modified versions of the code via a network have the opportunity to receive the source code. Finally, the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPLv3) is a weak copyleft license. It allows users to link to the work under their own terms, while still ensuring that downstream users receiving modified versions of the work itself still have their rights intact.

While this brief introduction gives a basic idea of how copyleft works, there is plenty more to learn. In addition to information provided by the FSF via our licensing portal1 there is now another great resource for learning about copyleft licensing: is a collaborative project run jointly by the FSF and the Software Freedom Conservancy2 that pools and shares information about copyleft. This information is being made into a book, Copyleft and the GNU General Public License: A Comprehensive Tutorial and Guide. It combines resources developed by several organizations into one comprehensive guide. Is a continual work in progress, but the FSF will from time to time endorse and publish particular versions of the document. For example, we used the guide as part of the foundation for our continuing legal education (CLE) seminar on GPL Enforcement and Legal Ethics last year, and plan to use it for future CLE events.
But is more than just a collaboration between the FSF and the Software Freedom Conservancy: it is a community effort. Its tutorial and guide consist of over 150 pages of useful information, but it takes quite a bit of work to maintain. We invite everyone to help update and revise the guide. You don't need to be a legal whiz kid to help out; one of the biggest tasks to take on is copy editing. Every pull request helps, so dive in!


Thursday, July 16, 2015


Le Cnam Liban est un établissement d'utilité publique d’enseignement supérieur.

  • Il s’adresse en priorité aux étudiants qui travaillent et qui souhaitent poursuivre leurs études.
  • Il travaille en étroite collaboration avec les entreprises afin de répondre à leurs attentes en matière de formation.
  • Il remplit trois missions : 
    • former tout au long de la vie, 
    • faire de la recherche et 
    • diffuser la culture scientifique et technique.
Le département informatique Réseaux et télécommunication 

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Thursday, July 2, 2015

MongoDB Vs MySql

Why use MongoDB instead of MySQL?

Organizations of all sizes are adopting MongoDB because it enables them to build applications faster, handle highly diverse data types, and manage applications more efficiently at scale.
Development is simplified as MongoDB documents map naturally to modern, object-oriented programming languages. Using MongoDB removes the complex object-relational mapping (ORM) layer that translates objects in code to relational tables.
MongoDB’s flexible data model also means that your database schema can evolve with business requirements. For example, the ALTER TABLE command required to add a single, new field to Craiglist’s MySQL database would take months to execute. The Craigslist team migrated to MongoDB because it can accommodate changes to the data model without such costly schema migrations.
MongoDB can also be scaled within and across multiple distributed data centers, providing new levels of availability and scalability previously unachievable with relational databases like MySQL. As your deployments grow in terms of data volume and throughput, MongoDB scales easily with no downtime, and without changing your application. In contrast, to achieve scale with MySQL often requires significant, custom engineering work.

What are common use cases for MongoDB?

MongoDB is a general purpose database that is used for a variety of use cases. The most common use cases for MongoDB include Single View, Internet of Things, Mobile, Real-Time Analytics, Personalization, Catalog, and Content Management.

When would MySQL be a better fit?

While most modern applications require a flexible, scalable system like MongoDB, there are use cases for which a relational database like MySQL would be better suited. Applications that remquire complex, multi-row transactions (e.g., a double-entry bookkeeping system) would be good examples. MongoDB is not a drop-in replacement for legacy applications built around the relational data model and SQL.
A concrete example would be the booking engine behind a travel reservation system, which also typically involves complex transactions. While the core booking engine might run on MySQL, those parts of the app that engage with users – serving up content, integrating with social networks, managing sessions – would be better placed in MongoDB

Are MongoDB and MySQL used together?

There are many examples of hybrid deployments of MongoDB and MySQL. In some cases, it’s a matter of using the right tool for the job. For example, many e-commerce applications use a combination of MongoDB and MySQL. The product catalog, which includes multiple products with different attributes, is a good fit for MongoDB’s flexible data model. On the other hand, the checkout system, which requires complex transactions, would likely be built on MySQL or another relational technology.
In other cases, new business requirements push organizations to adopt MongoDB for the next-generation components of their applications. For example, Sage Group, one of the world’s leading suppliers of business management software and services, integrated MongoDB into its popular Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution for midsize companies. Sage customers now enjoy a higher degree of functionality and personalization as a result of the integration. While many Sage products were originally built on and continue to run on MySQL, the latest user experience functionality centers around MongoDB.
These few exceptions aside, we think MongoDB is almost always a better option than MySQL because of its flexible data model and scalable architecture.

Want to Learn More? Get the RDBMS to MongoDB Migration Guide

Relational databases are being pushed beyond their limits because of the way we build and run applications today, coupled with growth in data sources and user loads. To address these challenges, companies like, MTV and Cisco have migrated successfully from relational databases to MongoDB. In this white paper, you'll learn:
  • Step by step how to migrate from a relational database to MongoDB.
  • The relevant technical considerations, such as differences between the relational and document data models and the implications for schema design.
  • Indexing, queries, application integration and data migration.
Migration rdbms nosql mongodb